What is the framing effect in polling?

In survey research, such as political polling, the way questions are worded or the order in which answers are presented can influence how respondents answer the questions. This is called the framing effect.

For example, if voters are asked to select which of two candidates they plan to vote for, the order in which the candidates are listed affects the percentage of respondents selecting each candidate. Recognising the potential for research bias, researchers typically rotate which major candidate is listed first and which is listed second.