Dissertation title page

The title page (or cover page) of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper should contain all the key information about your document. It usually includes:

  • Dissertation or thesis title
  • Your name
  • The type of document (e.g., dissertation, research paper)
  • The department and institution
  • The degree program (e.g., Master of Arts)
  • The date of submission

It sometimes also includes your student number, your supervisor’s name, and your university’s logo.

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Doing Survey Research | A Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

Survey research means collecting information about a group of people by asking them questions and analysing the results. To conduct an effective survey, follow these six steps:

  1. Determine who will participate in the survey
  2. Decide the type of survey (mail, online, or in-person)
  3. Design the survey questions and layout
  4. Distribute the survey
  5. Analyse the responses
  6. Write up the results

Surveys are a flexible method of data collection that can be used in many different types of research.

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Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organisation, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods, but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing, comparing, evaluating, and understanding different aspects of a research problem.

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Types of Research Designs Compared | Examples

When you start planning a research project, developing research questions and creating a research design, you will have to make various decisions about the type of research you want to do.

There are many ways to categorise different types of research. The words you use to describe your research depend on your discipline and field. In general, though, the form your research design takes will be shaped by:

  • The type of knowledge you aim to produce
  • The type of data you will collect and analyse
  • The sampling methods, timescale, and location of the research

This article takes a look at some common distinctions made between different types of research and outlines the key differences between them.

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Descriptive Research Design | Definition, Methods & Examples

Descriptive research aims to accurately and systematically describe a population, situation or phenomenon. It can answer what, where, when, and how questions, but not why questions.

A descriptive research design can use a wide variety of research methods to investigate one or more variables. Unlike in experimental research, the researcher does not control or manipulate any of the variables, but only observes and measures them.

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Research Design | Step-by-Step Guide with Examples

A research design is a strategy for answering your research question using empirical data. Creating a research design means making decisions about:

  • Your overall aims and approach
  • The type of research design you’ll use
  • Your sampling methods or criteria for selecting subjects
  • Your data collection methods
  • The procedures you’ll follow to collect data
  • Your data analysis methods

A well-planned research design helps ensure that your methods match your research aims and that you use the right kind of analysis for your data.

You might have to write up a research design as a standalone assignment, or it might be part of a larger research proposal or other project. In either case, you should carefully consider which methods are most appropriate and feasible for answering your question.

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Sampling Methods | Types, Techniques, & Examples

When you conduct research about a group of people, it’s rarely possible to collect data from every person in that group. Instead, you select a sample. The sample is the group of individuals who will actually participate in the research.

To draw valid conclusions from your results, you have to carefully decide how you will select a sample that is representative of the group as a whole. There are two types of sampling methods:

  • Probability sampling involves random selection, allowing you to make strong statistical inferences about the whole group.
  • Non-probability sampling involves non-random selection based on convenience or other criteria, allowing you to easily collect data.

You should clearly explain how you selected your sample in the methodology section of your paper or thesis.

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How to Quote | Citing Quotes in Harvard & APA

Quoting means copying a passage of someone else’s words and crediting the source. To quote a source, you must ensure:

  • The quoted text is enclosed in quotation marks (usually single rather than double in British English) or formatted as a block quote
  • The original author is correctly cited
  • The text is identical to the original

The exact format of a quote depends on its length and on which referencing style you are using. Quoting and citing correctly is essential to avoid plagiarism.

Example: How to quote
Natural selection ‘can produce no great or sudden modification; it can act only by very short and slow steps’ (Darwin, 1859, p. 510).

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What is a Literature Review? | Guide, Template, & Examples

What is a literature review? A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research.

There are five key steps to writing a literature review:

  1. Search for relevant literature
  2. Evaluate sources
  3. Identify themes, debates and gaps
  4. Outline the structure
  5. Write your literature review

A good literature review doesn’t just summarise sources – it analyses, synthesises, and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.

Tip
We’ve also compiled a few examples, templates, and sample outlines for you below.

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