A quick guide to OSCOLA referencing

The Oxford University Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) is a referencing style used by students and academics in law.

OSCOLA referencing places citations in footnotes, which are marked in the text with footnote numbers:

The judge referred to the precedent established by Caulfield v Baldwin.1

1. Caulfield v Baldwin (1994) 96 Cr App R 215.

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A quick guide to Vancouver referencing

Vancouver is a system of referencing commonly used in biomedicine, among other scientific disciplines. In Vancouver style, you place a reference number in the text wherever a source is cited:

Davies et al. state that the data is ‘unreliable’ (1, p. 15).

This number corresponds to an entry in your reference list – a numbered list of all the sources cited in your text, giving complete information on each:

1. Davies B, Jameson P. Advanced economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013.

This quick guide presents the most common rules for Vancouver style referencing. Note that some universities and journals have their own guidelines for the formatting of Vancouver references.

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A quick guide to APA referencing

APA citation

APA style referencing is commonly used in the social and behavioural sciences. An APA reference consists of two elements:

  1. The in-text citation: A brief reference in brackets when you mention a source, citing the author’s last name and the year of publication, e.g. (Smith, 2019). It identifies the full source in the reference list.
  2. The reference list entry: Full publication details listed on the reference page, which appears at the end of your paper. The reference provides all the information needed to find the source, e.g. Smith, P. (2019, April 18). Citing Sources in APA Format. Retrieved April 21, 2019, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-style/

This citation guide is based on the 6th edition of the APA Manual. The 7th edition, introduced in October 2019, is not yet supported, but we have compiled a quick guide to the most important changes.

Scribbr APA Citation Generator

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A quick guide to Harvard referencing

Referencing is an important part of academic writing. It’s how you let your readers know what sources you’re using, and how to find them.

Whenever you use information from another source in your text, it’s important to properly reference it, and the Harvard referencing style is one popular way of doing so.

In Harvard style, the author and year are cited in-text, and full details of the source are given in a reference list:

In-text citationMacmillan provides a clear guide to referencing (Pears and Shields, 2019).
Reference list entryPears, R. and Shields, G. (2019) Cite them right: The essential referencing guide. 11th ed. London: MacMillan.

This quick guide presents the most common rules for referencing in Harvard style.

Note
Some universities publish their own guidelines for Harvard referencing – always check if there are specific rules you’re expected to follow.

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A quick guide to MHRA referencing

MHRA style is a set of guidelines for referencing, commonly used in humanities subjects.

In MHRA, sources are cited in footnotes, marked by superscript numbers in the text. Subsequent citations of the same source are shortened, usually to just the author’s last name and the page number.

The protagonist of Silas Marner, and others of his profession, are described as resembling ‘the remnants of a disinherited race’.1 Though Marner’s appearance is not outwardly strange, we are told that for his neighbours, ‘it had mysterious peculiarities which corresponded with the exceptional nature of his occupation’.2

1. George Eliot, Silas Marner, ed. by Juliette Atkinson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), p. 3.
2. Eliot, p. 5.

The bibliography at the end of your text contains all your sources, alphabetically ordered by authors’ last names:

Eliot, George, Silas Marner, ed. by Juliette Atkinson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017)

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