Subject-verb agreement means that the subject of the sentence matches the verb describing its action. This helps your reader understand who or what is doing something and makes your writing easier to read.
First, identify the subject (the person or thing doing the action) and the verb (the action word) in a sentence. If the subject is singular, the verb describing its action should be singular. If the subject is plural, the verb should be plural.
Singular subject + verb
Plural subject + verb
The resultis significant.
The resultsare significant.
The studentdoes her best.
The studentsdo their best.
The childbecomes happier.
The childrenbecome happier.
That treecauses hay fever.
Those treescause hay fever.
The authoranalyses the text.
The authorsanalyse the text.
While subject-verb agreement is easy in simple sentences like these, it can become tricky in more complex sentences. This article teaches you the most important rules and common mistakes.
Uncountable nouns, also known as mass nouns or noncount nouns, refer to a mass of something or an abstract concept that can’t be counted (except with a unit of measurement). In contrast, countable nouns can be counted as individual items.
The main rules to remember for uncountable nouns are that they cannot be pluralised, and that they never take indefinite articles (‘a’ or “an”).
Reliability tells you how consistently a method measures something. When you apply the same method to the samesampleunder the same conditions, you should get the same results. If not, the method of measurement may be unreliable.
There are four main types of reliability. Each can be estimated by comparing different sets of results produced by the same method.
Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research. They indicate how well a method, technique, or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure.
It’s important to consider reliability and validity when you are creating your research design, planning your methods, and writing up your results, especially in quantitative research.
Reliability vs validity
What does it tell you?
The extent to which the results can be reproduced when the research is repeated under the same conditions.
The extent to which the results really measure what they are supposed to measure.
How is it assessed?
By checking the consistency of results across time, across different observers, and across parts of the test itself.
By checking how well the results correspond to established theories and other measures of the same concept.
How do they relate?
A reliable measurement is not always valid: the results might be reproducible, but they’re not necessarily correct.
A valid measurement is generally reliable: if a test produces accurate results, they should be reproducible.
Validity tells you how accurately a method measures something. If a method measures what it claims to measure, and the results closely correspond to real-world values, then it can be considered valid. There are four main types of validity: