Present Perfect Continuous | Examples & Exercises

The present perfect continuous is a verb tense used to refer to an action that started sometime in the past and is still ongoing. It also sometimes describes an action that was just completed, as long as it’s still relevant to the present (e.g., “I’ve been working hard all day, and now I’m getting some rest”).

The present perfect continuous consists of “have been” or “has been” (depending on the subject) followed by the present participle (“-ing” form) of the main verb.

Present perfect continuous forms
Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I have been learning I haven’t been learning Have I been learning?
You have been learning You haven’t been learning Have you been learning?
He/she/it has been learning He/she/it hasn’t been learning Has he/she/it been learning?
We have been learning We haven’t been learning Have we been learning?
You have been learning You haven’t been learning Have you been learning?
They have been learning They haven’t been learning Have they been learning?

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Present Continuous Tense | Examples & Exercises

The present continuous (also called the present progressive) is a verb tense used to refer to a temporary action that is currently taking place. It can also describe future plans (e.g., “I am throwing a party next week”).

The present continuous is formed by combining a form of the auxiliary verb “be” with the present participle (“-ing” form) of another verb (e.g., “I am swimming”).

present continuous forms table












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What Is Generative AI? | Meaning & Examples

Generative AI is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) systems to generate original media such as text, images, video, or audio in response to prompts from users. Popular generative AI applications include ChatGPT, Bard, DALL-E, and Midjourney.

Most generative AI is powered by deep learning technologies such as large language models (LLMs). These are models trained on a vast quantity of data (e.g., text) to recognise patterns so that they can produce appropriate responses to the user’s prompts.

This technology has seen rapid growth in sophistication and popularity in recent years, especially since the release of ChatGPT in November 2022. The ability to generate content on demand has major implications in a wide variety of contexts, such as academia and creative industries.

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Just Checking In | 5 Better Alternatives

Just checking in is a standard phrase used to start an email (or other message). It’s used to follow up on a previous message or conversation and ask for an update on a previously discussed or ongoing project. It’s meant to convey a friendly, no-pressure tone but encourage the reader to respond.

However, we recommend avoiding this phrasing, since it’s so overused and can come across as passive-aggressive. In follow-up emails, it’s important to incentivise the addressee to reply without coming across as pushy or disingenuous.

What should you write instead? We suggest a few good alternatives below.

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Yours Truly | Meaning, Usage & Examples

Yours truly is a standard sign-off that you can write before your name to end an email or letter. It combines the possessive pronoun “yours” with the adverb “truly” (be careful not to misspell it as “truely“) to express a sense of honesty toward the person you’re addressing.

It’s typically used in relatively informal correspondence. The more formal alternative is “Yours faithfully”, used in a formal letter or email to someone with whom you have not interacted before. “Yours sincerely” is used instead when writing formally to someone you’ve corresponded with before.

Example: Sincerely yours
Dear Emily,

Thanks for letting me know about …

Yours truly,


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To Whom It May Concern | Usage & Alternatives

To Whom It May Concern is a formal greeting that can be used to start an email or letter addressed to someone whose name you don’t know or to no one in particular. It’s still used, but it’s considered somewhat old-fashioned and impersonal. There are better options in most contexts.

Using this salutation can suggest to the recipient that you’re sending out a mass email to many different people or that you couldn’t be bothered to learn anything about the person to whom you’re writing.

Even if you don’t know the name of the person you’re writing to, it’s usually best to either find out or use a job title or department name to make your salutation more personal.

Examples: To Whom It May Concern alternatives
Dear Operations Team, …

Dear Head of Marketing, …

Dear Ms Birbal, …

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What Can ChatGPT Do? | Suggestions & Examples

ChatGPT, the popular generative AI writing tool, is constantly in the news these days. You might be wondering what all the hype is about and what exactly it can (and can’t) do.

The novelty of ChatGPT, and the reason it’s big news in the AI world and beyond, is its ability to generate unique, fluent, and largely accurate responses to pretty much any question or prompt.

Rather than being designed for one narrow task, ChatGPT is a generalist: it excels at a wide variety of activities, from coding to writing. Below, we explore 10 surprising things ChatGPT can do – and a few that it struggles with (so far).

Continue reading: What Can ChatGPT Do? | Suggestions & Examples

How to Use ChatGPT | Basics & Tips

No doubt you’ve heard something about ChatGPT, the hugely popular AI-powered chatbot. If you haven’t tried it out for yourself already, it’s easy to get started. We’ll walk you through:

Universities and other institutions are still developing their stances on how ChatGPT and similar tools may be used. Always follow your institution’s guidelines over any suggestions you read online. Check out our guide to current university policies on AI writing for more information.

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University Policies on AI Writing Tools | Overview & List

Educators are in the process of working out how to respond to AI writing tools like ChatGPT, and many students (and instructors) are unsure exactly what is allowed right now.

Our research into the current guidelines of the top 100 universities in the UK indicates that most don’t have definitive guidelines yet and that individual instructors normally decide what’s allowed in their courses for now. Specifically, we found five responses to AI writing tools from universities:

  • At 61% of universities, there seem to be no clear guidance or policy so far.
  • At 8% of universities, the tools are banned outright.
  • At 9% of universities, the tools are banned by default unless instructors say otherwise.
  • At 10% of universities, individual instructors decide their own policy for now.
  • At 12% of universities, the tools are allowed (with citation) unless instructors prohibit them.

UK university policies, 19 June

See data (Google Sheet)

If you’re unsure what is allowed in your case, always check your course guidelines or ask your instructor directly. Read on for a general summary of university stances so far and a table linking to specific guidance from the top 100 universities.

We plan to update this article periodically to reflect the current state of the conversation as more universities develop, publish, and update their policies. Check back in the future if the information you’re looking for isn’t here yet.

If you’re a student at or representative of an educational institution, we’d love to hear about how your institution is responding to AI writing tools so far – especially if you can share more up-to-date guidelines from your university. You can reach us at

Continue reading: University Policies on AI Writing Tools | Overview & List

Best Summary Generator | Tools Tested & Reviewed

summary generator (also called a summariser, summarising tool, or text summariser) is a kind of AI writing tool that automatically generates a short summary of a text. Many tools like this are available online, but what are the best options out there?

To find out, we tested 11 popular summary generators (all available free online, some with a premium version). We used two texts: a short news article and a longer academic journal article. We evaluated tools based on the clarity, accuracy, and concision of the summaries produced.

Our research indicates that the best summariser available right now is the one offered by QuillBot. You can use it for free to summarise texts of up to 1,200 words – up to 6,000 with a premium subscription.

Best summary generators in 2023
Tool Star rating Version tested Premium price (monthly)
1. QuillBot 4.0  Premium $19.95
2. Resoomer 2.8 Premium $10.57
3. Scribbr 2.5 Free
4. Sassbook 2.3 Premium $39
5. Paraphraser 2.0 Free
6. TLDR This 1.5 Premium $4.99
7. Rephrase 1.3 Free
8. Editpad 0.8 Premium $30
9. Summarizing Tool 0.5 Free
10. Smodin 0.5 Premium $5
11. Summarizer 0.3 Free
Scribbr is affiliated with QuillBot through our parent company, Learneo, and our own summariser is powered by QuillBot. However, care was taken to assess all tools based on the same factors – clarity, concision, and accuracy – without giving any unfair advantage to Scribbr or QuillBot.

You can read about our methodology below.

Continue reading: Best Summary Generator | Tools Tested & Reviewed