Primary vs. Secondary Sources | Difference & Examples

When you do research, you have to gather information and evidence from a variety of sources.

Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. Examples include interview transcripts, statistical data, and works of art. A primary source gives you direct access to the subject of your research.

Secondary sources provide second-hand information and commentary from other researchers. Examples include journal articles, reviews, and academic books. A secondary source describes, interprets, or synthesises primary sources.

Primary sources are more credible as evidence, but good research uses both primary and secondary sources.

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Transcribing an Interview | 5 Steps & Transcription Software

Transcribing is converting speech to text word for word. Transcribing is a common practice when conducting interviews because it enables you to perform analysis.

How to transcribe an interview in five steps:

  1. Choose your preferred transcription method.
  2. Transcribe the audio (using transcription software).
  3. Add speaker designation and time stamps.
  4. Clarify the transcript where needed.
  5. Proofread the transcript.

Transcription software comparison

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Internal vs External Validity | Understanding Differences & Examples

When testing cause-and-effect relationships, validity can be split up into two types: internal validity and external validity.

Internal validity refers to the degree of confidence that the causal relationship being tested is trustworthy and not influenced by other factors or variables.
External validity refers to the extent to which results from a study can be applied (generalised) to other situations, groups or events.

The validity of a study is largely determined by the experimental design. To ensure the validity of the tools or tests you use, you also have to consider measurement validity.

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Inductive vs Deductive Research Approach (with Examples)

The main difference between inductive and deductive reasoning is that inductive reasoning aims at developing a theory while deductive reasoning aims at testing an existing theory.

Inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to broad generalisations, and deductive reasoning the other way around.

Both approaches are used in various types of research, and it’s not uncommon to combine them in one large study.


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Qualitative vs Quantitative Research | Examples & Methods

When collecting and analysing data, quantitative research deals with numbers and statistics, while qualitative research deals with words and meanings. Both are important for gaining different kinds of knowledge.

Quantitative research
Quantitative research is expressed in numbers and graphs. It is used to test or confirm theories and assumptions. This type of research can be used to establish generalisable facts about a topic.

Common quantitative methods include experiments, observations recorded as numbers, and surveys with closed-ended questions.

Qualitative research
Qualitative research is expressed in words. It is used to understand concepts, thoughts or experiences. This type of research enables you to gather in-depth insights on topics that are not well understood.

Common qualitative methods include interviews with open-ended questions, observations described in words, and literature reviews that explore concepts and theories.

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APA Referencing (7th Ed.) Quick Guide | In-text Citations & References

APA 7th edition publication manualAPA Style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the social and behavioural sciences. The Scribbr APA Reference Generator automatically generates accurate references and in-text citations for free.

This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition, MLA Style, and Chicago Style.

Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr

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The 5 Types of Plagiarism | Explanations & Examples

Plagiarism comes in many forms, some more severe than others—from rephrasing someone’s ideas without acknowledgement to stealing a whole essay. These are the five most common types of plagiarism:

  • Global plagiarism means passing off an entire text by someone else as your own work.
  • Verbatim plagiarism means directly copying someone else’s words.
  • Paraphrasing plagiarism means rephrasing someone else’s ideas to present them as your own.
  • Patchwork plagiarism means stitching together parts of different sources to create your text.

Types of plagiarism

Except for global plagiarism, these types of plagiarism are often accidental, resulting from failure to understand how to properly quote, paraphrase, and cite your sources. If you’re concerned about accidental plagiarism, a plagiarism checker, like the one from Scribbr, can help.

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Dissertation binding and printing

Your dissertation is finally finished, you got it proofread and checked for plagiarism. The final step is printing your dissertation, which means choosing between:

  • Types of binding
  • Colour vs. black & white
  • Single vs. double sided
  • Paper type and thickness

You also need to decide which printing and binding service to use. This independent article explains all options and helps you make the right decisions.

Overview of printing services

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